About Me

Some words about me

I am a Research Director of the Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing (IAASARS) at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), Greece.

I received a BSc in Physics from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece) in 1995, followed by an MSc by Research with Distinction in Geophysics from the University of Edinburgh (UK) in 1997, an MSc in Condensed Matter Physics in 1998 and a PhD in Applied Electromagnetism in 2001 both from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.

From 2002 to 2006 I was the specialist for global electromagnetic induction in the CHAMP satellite team at GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. I returned to Greece in 2006 as an Assistant Researcher of the former Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing (ISARS) at NOA, where I have been responsible for the establishment, installation and operation of the HellENIc GeoMagnetic Array (ENIGMA) and for its access to the SuperMAG worldwide collaboration of ground-based magnetometers. ENIGMA is the first magnetometer station array that has ever operated in Greece.

My research interests lie mainly in space sciences (Sun-Earth connection, dynamics of the magnetosphere, space weather, geomagnetic field), Earth Observation and complex systems.

I have lead the European Space Agency (ESA) study ULFwave which aimed at improving the understanding of ultra low frequency (ULF) wave activity / propagation and the underlying processes in different regions of the magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and on the ground. Moreover, the study developed and delivered relevant tools that also allow to validate some of the data products of ESA’s Swarm mission, especially those related to the magnetic and electric fields in the magnetosphere.

I have published 1 book and 50+ refereed papers (Researcher ID, Google Scholar). One of my papers was highlighted as Science magazine Editor's Choice in the field of Astrophysics (October 2006) and three other papers were highlighted as American Geophysical Union (AGU) Editor's Choice - Space Weather (February 2006, August 2008 and July 2011).

I serve as an Editor for Magnetosphere and Space Plasma Physics of Annales Geophysicae, a journal of the European Geosciences Union (EGU).

Solar Wind-Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling
Geospace Magnetic Storms
Magnetospheric Waves
Space Weather
Spaceborne Magnetometry
Ground-based Magnetometry
Near-Earth Electromagnetic Environment
Earth Observation
Complex Systems
Time Series Analysis

The HellENIc GeoMagnetic Array.


Implemented under the “Reinforcement of the Research and Innovation Infrastructure” action, funded by the ”Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation” operational programme (NSRF 2014-2020) and co-financed by Greece and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund).


Building a Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation based monitoring of Natural Disasters, FP7 Specific Programme "Capacities", European Commission.


Transdisciplinary assessment of dynamical complexity in magnetosphere and climate: A unified description of the nonlinear dynamics across extreme events, Programme for the promotion of the exchange and scientific cooperation between Greece and Germany, German Partner: Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research - PIK (Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Jürgen Kurths), IKY-DAAD


Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization, FP7 Cooperation Theme: "Space", European Commission.


Multi-Satellite, multi-instrument and ground based observations analysis and study of ULF wave phenomena and products, European Space Agency.


Space-Data Routers, FP7 Cooperation Theme: "Space", European Commission.

List of Publications

last update August 2019

    Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, and I. R. Mann (editors), “Waves, Particles, and Storms in Geospace”, Oxford University Press, pp. 448, ISBN: 9780198705246, DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705246.001.0001, 2016.
Articles in journals and peer-reviewed book chapters
Publications of 2019
  1. Balasis G., C. Papadimitriou, A. Z. Boutsi (2019), Ionospheric response to so-lar and interplanetary disturbances: a Swarm perspective, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 377: 20180098.
  2. Balasis, G., S. A. Giamini, C. Papadimitriou, I. A. Daglis, A. Anastasiadis, and R. Haagmans (2019), A machine learning approach for automated ULF wave recognition, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 9, A13.
  3. Potirakis, S. M., Schekotov, A., Contoyiannis, Y., Balasis, G., Koulouras, G. E., Melis, N. S., Boutsi, A. Z., Hayakawa, M., Eftaxias, K., Nomicos, C. (2019), On Possible Electromagnetic Precursors to a Significant Earthquake (Mw = 6.3) Occurred in Lesvos (Greece) on 12 June 2017, Entropy, 21, 241. doi:10.3390/e21030241.
  4. Donner, R. V., Balasis, G., Stolbova, V., Georgiou, M., Wiedermann, M., & Kurths, J. (2019). Recurrence-based quantification of dynamical complexity in the Earth’s magnetosphere at geospace storm timescales. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124, 90–108.
Publications of 2018
  1. Georgiou, M., Daglis, I. A., Rae, I. J., Zesta, E., Sibeck, D. G., Mann, I. R., Balasis, G., & Tsinganos, K. (2018). Ultra-low frequency waves as an inter-mediary for solar wind energy input into the radiation belts. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123, 10,090–10,108.
  2. Runge, J., G. Balasis, I. A. Daglis, C. Papadimitriou, and R. V. Donner (2018), Common solar wind drivers behind magnetic storm–magnetospheric substorm dependency, Scientific Reports, 8, 16987, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35250-5.
  3. Donner, R. V., V. Stolbova, G. Balasis, J. F. Donges, M. Georgiou, S. M. Potirakis, and J. Kurths, Temporal organization of magnetospheric fluctuations unveiled by recurrence patterns in the Dst index, Chaos, 28, 085716, doi: 10.1063/1.5024792, 2018.
  4. Sergis, N., Achilleos, N., Guio, P., Arridge, C. S., Sorba, A. M., Roussos, E., et al. (2018), Mapping Saturn’s nightside plasma sheet using Cassini’s proximal orbits, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 6798–6804, doi:10.1029/2018GL078141.
  5. Balasis, G., Daglis, I. A., Contoyiannis, Y., Potirakis, S. M., Papadimitriou, C., Melis, N. S., et al. (2018), Observation of intermittency-induced critical dynamics in geomagnetic field time series prior to the intense magnetic storms of March, June, and December 2015, J. Geophys. Res.: Space Physics, 123, 4594–4613, doi:10.1002/2017JA025131.
  6. Papadimitriou, C., G. Balasis, I. A. Daglis, and O. Giannakis (2018), An initial ULF wave index derived from two years of Swarm observations, Ann. Geophys., 36, 287–299.
  7. Pakhotin, I. P., Mann, I. R., Lysak, R. L., Knudsen, D. J., Gjerloev, J. W., Rae, I. J.,…Balasis, G. (2018), Diagnosing the role of Alfvén waves in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling: Swarm observations of large amplitude nonstationary magnetic perturbations during an interval of northward IMF, J. of Geophys. Res.: Space Physics, 123, 326–340, doi:10.1002/2017JA024713.
Publications of 2017
  1. De Santis, A., G. Balasis, F.J. Pavón-Carrasco, G. Cianchini, and M. Mandea (2017), Potential earthquake precursory pattern from space: The 2015 Nepal event as seen by magnetic Swarm satellites, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 461, 119-126, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.037.
Publications of 2016
  1. Potirakis, S. M., Y. Contoyiannis, N. S. Melis, J. Kopanas, G. Antonopoulos, G. Balasis, C. Kontoes, C. Nomicos, and K. Eftaxias, Recent seismic activity at Cephalonia island (Greece): a study through candidate electromagnetic precursors in terms of nonlinear dynamics, Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 23, 223–240, doi:10.5194/npg-23-223-2016, 2016.
  2. Balasis, G., S. M. Potirakis, and M. Mandea (2016), Investigating Dynamical Complexity of Geomagnetic Jerks using Various Entropy Measures, Front. Earth Sci., 4:71, doi:10.3389/feart.2016.00071.
  3. Balasis, G., Book Review: Galactic Encounters, Front. Astron. Space Sci., 3:18, doi: 10.3389/fspas.2016.00018, 2016.
  4. Balasis, G., C. Papadimitriou, E. Zesta, and V. Pilipenko (2016), Monitoring ULF Waves from Low Earth Orbit Satellites, in: “Waves, Particles, and Storms in Geospace”, G. Balasis, I. A. Daglis, and I. R. Mann (eds.), 148–169, Oxford University Press, DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198705246.001.0001.
  5. Patsourakos, S., et al., The Major Geoeffective Solar Eruptions of 7 March 2012: Comprehensive Sun-to-Earth Analysis, Astrophysical Journal, 817:14 (21pp), doi:10.3847/0004-637X/817/1/14, 2016.
Publications of 2015
  1. Katsavrias, Ch., I. A. Daglis, D. L. Turner, I. Sandberg, C. Papadimitriou, M. Georgiou, and G. Balasis (2015), Nonstorm loss of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 10,521–10,530, doi:10.1002/2015GL066773.
  2. Georgiou, M., I. A. Daglis, E. Zesta, G. Balasis, C. Katsavrias, and K. Tsinganos, Association of radiation belt electron enhancements with earthward penetration of Pc5 waves: A case study of intense 2001 magnetic storms, Ann. Geophys., 33, 1431–1442, doi:10.5194/angeo-33-1431-2015, 2015.
  3. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, I. R. Mann, C. Papadimitriou, M. Georgiou, E. Zesta, and R. Haagmans, Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm, Ann. Geophys., 33, 1237–1252, doi:10.5194/angeo-33-1237-2015, 2015.
  4. Balasis, G., C. Papadimitriou, I. A. Daglis, and V. Pilipenko (2015), ULF wave power features in the topside ionosphere revealed by Swarm observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 6922–6930, doi:10.1002/2015GL065424.
  5. Dimitrakoudis, S., I. R. Mann, G. Balasis, C. Papadimitriou, A. Anastasiadis, and I. A. Daglis (2015), Accurately specifying storm-time ULF wave radial diffusion in the radiation belts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5711–5718, doi:10.1002/2015GL064707.
  6. De Santis, A., et al. Geospace perturbations induced by the Earth: The state of the art and future trends. J. Phys. Chem. Earth, 85–86 (2015), 17–33, doi:10.1016/j.pce.2015.05.004.
  7. Donner, R. V., Potirakis, S. M., Balasis, G., Eftaxias, K., and J. Kurths, Temporal correlation patterns in pre-seismic electromagnetic emissions reveal distinct complexity profiles prior to major earthquakes. J. Phys. Chem. Earth 85–86 (2015), 44–55, doi:10.1016/j.pce.2015.03.008.
Publications of 2013
  1. Zaourar, N., M. Hamoudi, M. Mandea, G. Balasis and M. Holschneider, Wavelet-Based Multiscale Analysis of Geomagnetic Disturbance, Earth Planets and Space, 65 (12), 1525–1540, doi:10.5047/eps.2013.05.001, 2013.
  2. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, M. Georgiou, C. Papadimitriou, and R. Haagmans, Magnetospheric ULF wave studies in the frame of Swarm mission: a time-frequency analysis tool for automated detection of pulsations in magnetic and electric field observations, Earth, Planets and Space, 65, 1385–1398, 2013.
  3. Donner, R. V. and G. Balasis, Correlation-based characterisation of time-varying dynamical complexity in the Earth’s magnetosphere, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 20, 965–975, doi:10.5194/npg-20-965-2013, 2013.
  4. 1Balasis, G., R. V. Donner, S. M. Potirakis, J. Runge, C. Papadimitriou, I. A. Daglis, K. Eftaxias, and J. Kurths, Statistical mechanics and information-theoretic perspectives on complexity in the Earth system, Entropy, 15 (11), 4844–4888; doi:10.3390/e15114844, 2013.
  5. Kunagu, P., G. Balasis, V. Lesur, E. Chandrasekhar and C. Papadimitriou, Wavelet characterization of external magnetic sources as observed by CHAMP satellite: evidence for unmodeled signals in geomagnetic field models, Geophys. J. Int., 192, 946–950, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggs093, 2013.
  6. Eftaxias, K., G. Minadakis, S. M. Potirakis and G. Balasis, Dynamical analogy between epileptic seizures and seismogenic electromagnetic emissions by means of nonextensive statistical mechanics, Physica A, 392, 497–509, doi:10.1016/j.physa.2012.09.015, 2013.
1 - review paper
Publications of 2012
  1. Balasis, G., Daglis, I. A., Zesta, E., Papadimitriou, C., Georgiou, M., Haagmans, R. and Tsinganos, K.: ULF wave activity during the 2003 Halloween superstorm: multipoint observations from CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail missions, Ann. Geophys., 30, 1751–1768, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-1751-2012, 2012.
  2. Daglis, I. A., Sykioti, O., Anastasiadis, A., Balasis, G., Keramitsoglou, I., Paronis, D., Rontogiannis, A. and Diamantopoulos, S., Space mission characteristics and requirements to be addressed by space-data router enhancement of space-data exploitation, in : “Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)”, Y. Koucheryavy et al. (Eds.), 7277 LNCS, 366–373, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.
Publications of 2011
  1. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, C. Papadimitriou, A. Anastasiadis, I. Sandberg and K. Eftaxias (2011), Quantifying Dynamical Complexity of Magnetic Storms and Solar Flares via Nonextensive Tsallis Entropy, Entropy, 13, 1865–1881, doi:10.3390/e13101865.
  2. Balasis, G., C. Papadimitriou, I. A. Daglis, A. Anastasiadis, I. Sandberg and K. Eftaxias (2011), Similarities between extreme events in the solar-terrestrial system by means of nonextensivity, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 18, 563–572.
  3. Balasis, G., C. Papadimitriou, I. A. Daglis, A. Anastasiadis, L. Athanasopoulou, and K. Eftaxias (2011), Signatures of discrete scale invariance in Dst time series, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L13103, doi:10.1029/2011GL048019 [AGU Editor's Choice: Space Weather – July 2011].
  4. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, A. Anastasiadis, and K. Eftaxias (2011), Detection of dynamical complexity changes in Dst time series using entropy concepts and rescaled range analysis, in: “The Dynamic Magnetosphere”, W. Liu, and M. Fujimoto (eds.), IAGA Special Sopron Book Series, Springer, vol. 3, part 3, 211–220, doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-0501-2_12.
  5. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, A. Anastasiadis, C. Papadimitriou, M. Mandea, and K. Eftaxias (2011), Universality in solar flare, magnetic storm and earthquake dynamics using Tsallis statistical mechanics, Physica A, doi:10.1016/j.physa.2010.09.029, 390, 341–346.
  6. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, A. Anastasiadis, and K. Eftaxias (2011), Investigating magnetospheric dynamics using various complexity measures, in: “Modern Challenges in Nonlinear Plasma Physics: a Festschrift Honoring the Career of Dennis Papadopoulos”, D. Vassiliadis, S.F. Fung, X. Shao, I.A. Daglis, and J.D. Huba (eds.), AIP Conference Proceedings 1320, 65–71, doi:10.1063/1.3544339, American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY.
Publications of 2010
  1. Eftaxias, K., G. Balasis, Y. Contoyiannis, C. Papadimitriou, M. Kalimeri, L. Athanasopoulou, S. Nikolopoulos, J. Kopanas, G. Antonopoulos, and C. Nomicos (2010), Unfolding the procedure of characterizing recorded ultra low frequency, kHZ and MHz electromagnetic anomalies prior to the L’Aquila earthquake as pre-seismic ones – Part 2, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 275–294.
Publications of 2009
  1. J. Watermann, P. Wintoft, B. Sanahuja, E. Saiz, S. Poedts, M. Palmroth, A. Milillo, F.-A. Metallinou, C. Jacobs, N. Yu. Ganushkina, I. A. Daglis, C. Cid, Y. Cerrato, G. Balasis, A. D. Aylward and A. Aran (2009), Models of the solar wind structures and its interaction with the Earth’s space environment, Space Science Reviews, doi:10.1007/s11214-009-9494-9, 233–270.
  2. Eftaxias, K., L. Athanasopoulou, G. Balasis, M. Kalimeri, S. Nikolopoulos, Y. Contoyiannis, J. Kopanas, G. Antonopoulos, and C. Nomicos (2009), Unfolding the procedure of characterizing recorded ultra low frequency, kHZ and MHz electromagnetic anomalies prior to the L’Aquila earthquake as pre-seismic ones – Part 1, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 1953–1971.
  3. Balasis, G., and K. Eftaxias (2009), A study of non-extensivity in the Earth's magnetosphere, Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics, 174, 219–225.
  4. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, C. Papadimitriou, M. Kalimeri, A. Anastasiadis, and K. Eftaxias (2009), Investigating dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere using various entropy measures, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A00D06, doi:10.1029/2008JA014035.
  5. Daglis I. A., Balasis G., Ganushkina N., Metallinou F.-A., Palmroth M., Pirjola R. and Tsagouri I. (2009), Understanding the solar wind – magnetosphere – ionosphere coupling through the synergy of modeling, simulations and data analysis, special issue on Space Weather, Acta Geophysica, doi: 10.2478/s11600-008-0055-5, 57 (1), 141 – 157.
  6. Koulouras G., Balasis G., Kiourktsidis I., Nannos E., Kontakos K., Stonham J., Ruzhin Y., Eftaxias K., Kavouras D., and Nomicos C. (2009), Discrimination between preseismic electromagnetic anomalies and solar activity effects, Physica Scripta, 79, 045901.
Publications of 2008
  1. Balasis, G., I. A. Daglis, C. Papadimitriou, M. Kalimeri, A. Anastasiadis, and K. Eftaxias (2008), Dynamical complexity in Dst time series using non-extensive Tsallis entropy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L14102, doi:10.1029/2008GL034743 [AGU Editor's Choice: Space Weather – August 2008].
  2. Eftaxias K., Y. Contoyiannis, G. Balasis, K. Karamanos, J. Kopanas, G. Antonopoulos, and C. Nomicos (2008), Evidence of fractional-Brownian-motion type asperity model for earthquake by means of pre-seismic electromagnetic emissions, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 657 – 669.
  3. Kalimeri M., C. Papadimitriou, G. Balasis, and K. Eftaxias (2008), Dynamical complexity detection in pre-seismic emissions using nonadditive Tsallis entropy, Physica A, 387, 1161 – 1172.
Publications of 2007
  1. Maus, S., H. Lühr, M. Rother, K. Hemant, G. Balasis, P. Ritter, and C. Stolle (2007), Fifth generation lithospheric magnetic field model from CHAMP satellite measurements, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Q05013, doi:10.1029/2006GC001521.
  2. Balasis, G., and M. Mandea (2007), Can electromagnetic disturbances related to the recent great earthquakes be detected by satellite magnetometers?, Tectonophysics, 431, doi:10.1016/ j.tecto.2006.05.038.
Publications of 2006
  1. Balasis G., I. A. Daglis, P. Kapiris, M. Mandea, D. Vassiliadis, and K. Eftaxias (2006), From pre-storm activity to magnetic storms: a transition described in terms of fractal dynamics, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 3557-3567.
  2. Mandea M., and G. Balasis (2006), The SGR 1806-20 magnetar signature on the Earth's magnetic field, Geophys. J. Int., doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.03125.x [Science Editor’s Choice: Astrophysics – October 2006].
  3. Balasis G. and Egbert G. D. (2006), Empirical orthogonal function analysis of magnetic observatory data: Further evidence for non-axisymmetric magnetospheric sources for satellite induction studies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11311, doi:10.1029/2006GL025721.
  4. Eftaxias K., Kapiris P., Balasis G., Peratzakis A., Karamanos K., Kopanas J., Antonopoulos G. and Nomicos K. (2006), A Unified Approach to Catastrophic Events: From the Normal State to Geological or Biological Shock in Terms of Spectral Fractal and Nonlinear Analysis, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 205 – 228.
  5. Stolle C., Lühr H., Rother M. and Balasis G. (2006), Magnetic signatures of equatorial spread F as observed by the CHAMP satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A02304, doi:10.1029/2005JA011184 [AGU Editor's Choice: Space Weather – February 2006].
Publications of 2005
  1. Balasis G., Bedrosian P. A. and Eftaxias K. (2005), A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 931 – 946.
  2. Balasis G., Maus S., Lühr H. and Rother M. (2005), Wavelet analysis of CHAMP flux gate magnetometer data, in "Earth Observation with CHAMP", ed. by C. Reigber, H. Lühr, P. Schwintzer and J. Wickert, 347 – 352, Springer, New York.
  3. Maus S., Lühr H., Balasis G., Rother M. and Mandea M. (2005), Introducing POMME, the POtsdam Magnetic Model of the Earth, in "Earth Observation with CHAMP", ed. by C. Reigber, H. Lühr, P. Schwintzer and J. Wickert, pp. 293-298, Springer, New York.
Publications of 2004
  1. Balasis G., Egbert G. D. and Maus S. (2004), Local time effects in satellite estimates of electromagnetic induction transfer functions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16610, doi:10.1029/2004GL020147.
  2. Kapiris P., Balasis G., Kopanas J., Antonopoulos G., Peratzakis A. and Eftaxias K. (2004), Scaling similarities of multiple fracturing in solid materials, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 11, 137 – 151.
Publications of 2003
  1. Kapiris P., Eftaxias K., Nomikos K., Polygiannakis J., Dologlou E., Balasis G., Bogris N., Peratzakis A. and Hadjikontis V. (2003), Evolving towards a critical point: A possible electromagnetic way in which the critical regime is reached as the rupture approaches, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 10 (6), 511 – 524.
Contact Me


(+30) 210 810 9185

National Observatory of Athens
Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications & Remote Sensing
Vas. Pavlou & I. Metaxa, 15236 Penteli, Greece